Under the auspices of the IVVI large scale, cross-sectional epidemiological studies to assess and characterise BBV infections in different regions of Vietnam were carried out between 2007 and 2010. The study focused on five geographical regions including Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho (regions of Vietnam are shown below). Blood samples and epidemiological information were collected from individuals with various exposure histories including commercial sex workers, injecting drug users, blood donors, military recruits, pregnant women, dialysis patients, elective surgery patients and recipients of multiple blood transfusions. In all over 17,000 samples have been collected and in the initial studies 8,654 have been analysed. The results of these studies have been published or have been accepted for publication (See below).


The studies have confirmed the high endemicity of Hepatitis B virus in Vietnam (with 10.7% of the participants chronically infected with the virus) and reveal for the first time the significant prevalence of co-infection with Hepatitis Delta virus in this cohort. The study also highlighted the importance of HBV-HIV co-infections and has allowed the IVVI to propose specific strategies to manage these infections.


The studies have also confirmed that the epidemic of HIV is almost exclusively confined to high risk groups such as injecting drug users and commercial sex workers. The restriction of HIV infections to these risk groups provides unique opportunities for intervention to prevent spread into the general population.  Molecular studies demonstrated that transmission of drug resistant HIV-1 is a significant problem which will require careful monitoring. 


Studies on HCV have also highlighted the high rates of infection not only in aforementioned at risk groups but also in patients undergoing dialysis and with a history of blood transfusion.  Molecular analysis demonstrated that infection involves a large number of HCV genotypes several of which were novel and which in certain areas had distinct geographical distributions.

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Copyright @ 2012. The IVVI Ireland-Vietnam Blood-Borne Virus Initiative.

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Journal Articles



  1. 1.DUNFORD, L., CARR, M. J., DEAN, J., WATERS, A., NGUYEN, L. T., TA THI, T. H., BUI THI, L. A., DUONG DO, H., DUONG THI, T. T., NGUYEN, H. T., DIEM DO, T. T., LUU, Q. P., CONNELL, J., COUGHLAN, S., NGUYEN, H. T., HALL, W. W. & NGUYEN THI, L. A. 2012. Hepatitis C Virus in Vietnam: High Prevalence of Infection in Dialysis and Multi-Transfused Patients Involving Diverse and Novel Virus Variants. PLos ONE. August 15 2012.

  2. 2.DUNFORD, L., CARR, M. J., DEAN, J., NGUYEN, L. T., TA THI, T. H., NGUYEN, B. T., CONNELL, J., COUGHLAN, S., NGUYEN, H. T., HALL, W. W. & NGUYEN THI, L. A. 2012. A multicentre Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B and Blood-Borne Virus Coinfections in Vietnam. PLos ONE. June 13 2012.


  1. 3.LUU, Q. P., DEAN, J., DO, T. T., CARR, M. J., DUNFORD, L., COUGHLAN, S., CONNELL, J., HIEN, N. T., W, W. H. & NGUYEN THI, L. A. 2012. HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism, CCR5 Genotype and Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Profiles in Vietnam - Implications for the Introduction of New Antiretroviral Regimens. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. Epub March 2012.


  1. 4.DEAN, J. TA THI, T. H., DUNFORD, L., CARR, M. J., NGUYEN, L. T., COUGHLAN, S., CONNELL, J., NGUYEN, H. T., HALL, W. W. & NGUYEN THI, L. A. 2011. Prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Vietnam: a multicenter study. AIDS Research and Human retroviruses, 27, 797-801.




Oral Presentations


  1. 1.TA THI, TH, DEAN, J, DUNFORD, L, NGUYEN TLA, CARR, M, COUGHLAN, S, CONNELL, J, NGUYEN TH AND HALL, WW. Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations in a Treatment-Naïve Cohort of HIV-1 Individuals in Vietnam.4th National Scientific Conference on HIV/AIDS, Hanoi, Vietnam. 2 December 2010.


  1. 2.NGUYEN TL, DUNFORD, L, DEAN, J, NGUYEN TLA, CARR, M, COUGHLAN, S, CONNELL, J, NGUYEN TH AND HALL, WW. Validation of the IVVI In-House Real Time RT-PCR for HIV-1 Viral Load. 4th National Scientific Conference on HIV/AIDS, Hanoi, Vietnam. 1 December 2010.


  1. 3.DEAN J, TA THI TH, DUNFORD L, CARR MJ, COUGHLAN S, CONNELL J, NGUYEN HT, HALL WW AND NGUYEN THI LA. A Nationwide Study on the Prevalence of HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Vietnam. IDSI Meeting Dublin, Ireland. June 2011.


  1. 4.DUNFORD L, CARR MJ, NGUYEN THI, LA, DEAN, J, TRAN HONG, T , TA THI TH, COUGHLAN S, CONNELL, J, NGUYEN HT. AND HALL, WW. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Viral Infection in Vietnam. IDSI Meeting Dublin, Ireland. June 2010,


  1. 5.DEAN J , DUNFORD L, CARR MJ, NEARY M , NGUYEN LA, TRAN TH, TA THI TH, COUGHLAN S, CONNELL J, NGUYEN HT AND HALL WW. Prevalence of Drug Resistance Mutations in a Treatment-Naïve Cohort of HIV-1 Patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. IDSI Meeting Dublin, Ireland. June 2010


  1. 6.DUNFORD L, NGUYEN TL, TRINH QM, NGUYEN TB, NGUYEN TTT, NGUYEN LA, TRAN TTM, CONNELL J, NGUYEN HT AND HALL WW. Epidemiology of Blood-Borne Viruses in Vietnam. IDSI Meeting, Dublin, Ireland. June 2009.



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